Abscess

Abscess

What can be troubles with your own health and how not to run into them? Let’s find out. An abscess is a focal purulent inflammation, which is characterized by the formation of a cavity filled with pus, consisting of white blood cells (leukocytes), serum and the remains of destroyed tissue.

There is a less common type of abscess, a cold one, in which no inflammatory reactions occur.

A regular, or purulent, one can be localized in any tela of the body, for example, in the center of the bone. More often there are appendicular, peritonsillar and subphrenic abscesses, ones of lymph nodes, mammary glands, liver, lungs. Boils, carbuncles and felon are also referred to this disease.

It is dangerous for its complications and always requires surgical intervention.

What are the reasons for the formation?

Purulent types are caused by bacteria. Most often these are streptococci, staphylococci and enterococci, Escherichia coli, Proteus, etc. Cold types always have a tuberculous origin.

Infection occurs in one of two ways:

  1. Exogenous (small cuts, wounds).
  2. Endogenous (infection with blood flow from neighboring organs).

To the formation of a predispose: violation of the body’s defense mechanisms, the presence of foreign bodies, deterioration of the patency of the biliary, urinary or respiratory tract; ischemia necrosis, accumulation of blood or exudate in tissues; tela injury. The formed tela necrosis leads to the accumulation of exudate, the formation of a cavity in which leukocytes accumulate, causing it.

How does it manifest itself?

The depth of the lesion and the severity of the symptoms depend the pathogen, the state of the immune system, and on the effectiveness of the treatment.

The first stage of a purulent abscess is a general tela infection. At the second stage, decay, or necrosis, of tissue occurs with the formation of a cavity filled with pus in it.

There are six main symptoms:

  1. Puffiness.
  2. Pain.
  3. Redness.
  4. Increase in body temperature.
  5. Malaise.
  6. Cold types are usually mild, painless swelling without an increase in temperature or white blood cell count.

Other symptoms depend on the localization of the process. Accordingly, if a certain organ is damaged, there will be signs of a violation of its work.

If an abscess is suspected, it is important to determine the facts supporting the diagnosis.

Additional research methods help in diagnosis:

  • examination and palpation;
  • blood analysis;
  • ultrasound;
  • X-ray examination;
  • CT scan;
  • diagnostic puncture.

Complications

Theу include the following:

  • bacteremia and spread of infection to remote areas;
  • breakthrough into adjacent tissues and cavities;
  • arrosive bleeding due to inflammation, dysfunction of vital organs, exhaustion associated with the general effects of anorexia and tela decay.

A breakthrough can lead to its spontaneous drainage into adjacent tela or cavities or into the external environment.

Indicative is the general test, in which there is an increase in ESR, the number of leukocytes with a shift in the formula to the left. With the progression of the disease, changes in the blood picture become more pronounced.

Treatment

Purulent types, regardless of their location, are opened and drained as soon as the presence of pus is established. The contents of cold ones have to be sucked off, since their opening creates the danger of secondary infection.

If it is located on the internal organs, the disease is treated only in a hospital. In this case, after a thorough examination with the definition of the boundaries of inflammation under general anesthesia, it is opened with the obligatory removal of the capsule. In the presence of chronic ones, for example, with lung damage, the capsule is removed along with the surrounding tissues. In the event that it is impossible to remove the capsule.

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