Abscess

Abscess

 An abscess is most often caused by the penetration of microorganisms (in most cases of staphylococci, epidermal streptococcus, bacteroids) into tissues and organs as a result of injuries (including operating theaters), superficial injections with short needles of pharmaceutical solutions of increased concentration or on an oil basis, and non-compliance of asepsis rules.  Etiology and pathogenesis An abscess may occur with boils, carbuncles, lymphadenitis, hematoma suppuration. Favorable factors for the occurrence of this pathology are diabetes mellitus, obesity, vitamin deficiencies, immunodeficiency,…

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ARVI and influenza among children

ARVI and influenza among children

With the onset of the cold season, the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) and influenza increases every year, becoming epidemic. Children are most susceptible to these infections: they catch a cold from an average of 7 to 10 times a year against 2-3 cases of the disease in adults.  There are two main causes of such morbidity in children: first, their immune system is not yet familiar with many viruses and cannot give them a fitting rebuff right…

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Heart injury

Heart injury

Heart injury – damage to the heart caused by the action of a physical factor. Prevalence Peacetime injuries are quite common and make up 7-14% of the total number of chest injuries. There are: open heart injury; closed heart trauma. Open injury It is a penetrating damage with a violation of the integrity of the chest and pericardium. Etiology and pathogenesis Open trauma is mainly the result of striking a piercing-cutting weapon, but can also be observed in road and…

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Abnormalities of the external genital organs

Abnormalities of the external genital organs

The clinic and the diagnosis of anomalies of the female genital organs is difficult because a number of shortcomings do not manifest themselves, and for the first time they make themselves felt only in the puberty period. Detection of anomalies of the genital organs has three peaks: at birth, during puberty, and when attempting to develop sex life. Leading, and sometimes the only symptom is menstrual dysfunction in the form of amenorrhea or polymenorrhea. These manifestations are due to the…

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Herpes

Herpes

Viral infections often occur in children. When infected with herpes, rashes can appear on the mucous membranes of the mouth, lips, inner surface of the cheeks. However, this disease can be mistaken for a sore throat. Causes It refers to viruses that can affect not only the skin, but also the mucous membranes of the throat, eyes and mouth. Its feature is the fact that the pathology is more common in children 1-14 years. Breast babies rarely get this type…

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Pediculosis

Pediculosis

Pediculosis is infestation by lice. On the human body 3 types can parasitize, which differ in habitat and structure: head, wardrobe and pubic.  A head louse lives in the scalp, mainly on the temples, the back of the head and crown. The clothes one is parasitic on the human body, mainly in the folds and seams of linen and clothing. The pubic one lives in the hairy part near the genitals, but with massive invasion and in other places, up…

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Secondary (metastatic) ovarian tumors

Secondary (metastatic) ovarian tumors

Metastatic tumors make up 5-6% of malignant ovarian ones. Most often the lasts of the genital organs, breast, gastrointestinal tract and malignant lymphomas metastasize in the ovariums.  The lesion occurs by implantation, hematogenous or lymphogenous. It is also possible with the direct transition of the oncoma to the ovarium from a neighboring organ (germination). The clinical picture of primary and ovarian cancer is similar, often together with marked amenorrhea. This is explained by the presence of luteinized cells in the…

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Heart bradycardia

Heart bradycardia

Bradycardia is a slowdown in heart rate, a decrease in heart rate to the level of 30-50 beats per minute.  The disease can be of several types: Relative bradycardia of the heart (occurs after physical exertion, with an increase in body temperature, infections, meningitis, injuries). This category includes the bradycardia of athletes. Absolute bradycardia (the heart always beats pathologically slowly, regardless of the circumstances). Extracardiac bradycardia (accompanying diseases of internal organs, myxedema, neurological diseases). Moderate bradycardia (diagnosed in patients with…

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Myopia

Myopia

Myopia is a disease in which a person poorly distinguishes objects located at a distance. With myopia, the image does not occur in a specific area of the retina, but is located in the plane in front of it.  Etiology  Currently, there is no single scientific concept of the emergence and development of myopia. The most recognized is the three-component hypothesis of the origin of myopia, according to which three links play a role in its development: 1) visual work…

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Blepharitis

Blepharitis

Blepharitis is a disease of the margins of the eyelids. The most visible signs of this inflammation are redness of the edges of the lids and small whitish-yellow scales between the eyelashes. Patients complain of itchy winkers, they blink more often than usual. It should be emphasized that, despite the predominant lesion of the eyelids, this disease does not always apply to a pure ocular pathology. As a rule, the main causes are inflammation of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis, frontal…

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